A week before President Trump held his controversial campaign rally in Tulsa, Okla., was when Viviana Dark, a K-pop fan from Wisconsin (who has requested pseudonymity over concerns of online harassment), first heard of plans to "sabotage" the event. Users on TikTok, the exceptionally popular social-video platform, were urging others to reserve tickets to the rally, with no intention of actually going. "You know how a TikTok challenge happens? It was kind of like that. 'Everybody go do this!' And it spread like wildfire," Dark, 19, tells NPR Music.
She signed up for two seats, received a confirmation email from the Trump campaign — "I'm counting on my loyal supporters like you" — and never showed up to the rally, which drew just a few thousand supporters to the 19,000-seat auditorium on June 20.
It's not clear how much TikTok teens and K-pop fans should be credited for the rally's disappointing turnout; Trump's campaign originally claimed it received more than a million requests for tickets. A stage prepared for overflow was never used.
Dark, who supports the girl groups TWICE and GWSN, is no stranger to political activism in coordination with her K-pop community. She has a Twitter group chat with fellow idol fans from all over the world, where they exchange info about stars, petitions and hashtag movements. To "clog up" the platform, she tweeted #WhiteLivesMatter and #KeepAmericaGreat hashtags, coupled with irrelevant fancams of her favorite stars, as a way of diluting the usefulness and relevance of the tags.
"I'm Black before I'm a K-pop stan," she says. "The main point of why we were fighting was for the Black Lives Matter cause, not to get recognized [as K-pop fans]."
But getting recognized they are, as "maestros of social media," "an unexpected ally," "unlikely heroes." This month, fans of BTS matched the boy band's $1 million Black Lives Matter donation in roughly a day. Others are credited with flooding the iWatch Dallas app with fancams (and sinking its App Store ranking) after the Dallas police asked people to report "illegal activity" from the George Floyd and Black Lives Matter protests.
"I never thought I'd see the day where kpop stans are defeating the police," read one tweet that received over 4,000 likes.
"Why is this so surprising? If you know the people in the K-pop fandom, this [political activism] seems natural," says Lee Jeeheng, a cultural studies scholar and author of BTS and ARMY Culture, a book analyzing the fandom of the extremely popular group. "K-pop fandom is a digital tribe. Fans have been trained to mobilize quickly. They already have the infrastructure; when someone says, 'Go here!' everybody can run towards the target."
In the past, fans have donated to a London charity to fund over 35,000 meals, reportedly protested against the Chilean government in 2019 and raised awareness about the need for safer roads in Bangladesh.
This activism, while not practiced by every K-pop fan, has a long history. In South Korea, organized music fandoms began appearing in the 1980s and '90s. Fan philanthropy, now common in Korea beyond pop music, has its roots in the early 2000s. Fans of the "first generation" idol band Shinhwa, which debuted in 1998 and is still active, are credited with starting the "fan rice" trend in 2007, sending thousands of kilograms of rice to charity. Other fandoms have funded cochlear implants for deaf children and, more recently, COVID-19 efforts.
Within and across different fandoms, political awareness is shared through loose online networks on Twitter, Instagram, fan cafes, etc.
Scholar Lee, a BTS fan, remembers one instance: In 2018, BTS member Jimin wore a shirt depicting the U.S atomic bombing of Japan, after which fans became embroiled in contentious debates about Western imperialism and Japan's atrocities during World War II, including sexually enslaving women for its military. Multilingual fans furiously translated on Twitter, including Lee. "Fans from Southeast Asia started talking about their grandmothers who were sexually enslaved," she recalls. "It was an incredible history lesson. It was a really moving experience. I witnessed diversity and minority representation in action."
"Worldwide, K-pop is being consumed in the name of diversity politics," says Mimyo, the editor-in-chief of Idology, an online magazine specializing in K-pop idol music. "Most K-pop fans are already interested in diversity politics; combine this with K-pop fandom's culture of collective action. That's why K-pop's global fandom is participating actively in social movements like Black Lives Matter."
"To be a non-Korean K-pop fan is innately political, I dunno why anyone is still surprised that K-pop fans are political," tweeted Tamar Herman, a K-pop correspondent for Billboard.
Herman's and Mimyo's comments are part of a growing media narrative highlighting K-pop fans' political progressiveness. But the reality is more complicated.
For one, there are plenty of fans like Dionne Saville, who don't really engage in K-pop's political activities. "K-pop is not at all an inherently political act for me. It's just excellent music that crosses global boundaries. I enjoy the deeper cultural connection it brings," Saville, a 47-year-old BTS fan in Yorkshire, U.K., tells NPR Music.
Then there are more sinister issues. Ironically, for a music industry seen as heralding diversity politics, with millions of POC fans worldwide, K-pop creators still face constant accusations of cultural appropriation and racism, particularly against Black people.
For example, blackface, though less common now, has brought plenty of A-list idols under fire. Artists also frequently stylize themselves after Black culture, and many cite Black music as a central influence.
"Traditionally, K-pop has not been a space that has validated Black feelings about those choices," writes Natasha Mulenga for Teen Vogue, "despite the impact Blackness has had on an industry that was reported at $5.4 billion ... in 2018."
Within the fandom, plenty of Black fans have voiced concerns about being gaslighted by other fans when bringing up racism.
"It feels really hard to be a POC in K-pop," says Dark. "When some fans try to talk about internal racism or even cultural appropriation, it kind of gets pushed under the bed. People of color are shushed by other K-pop fans."
That's why, for Dark, some K-pop fans jumping in online to support the Black Lives Matter movement feels hollow. "Some people's gestures of 'being an ally' feels performative, like it's just on a surface level."
"Being a K-pop fan causes me lots of drama and issues mentally, because of the racism. But I feel it's almost worth it to have that connection to the world, to music, to all these different ideas. K-pop helps me learn about the world."
Meanwhile, many K-pop artists have spoken out on Black Lives Matter — a rare sight, since unlike many of their fans, most artists refrain from making political statements in public.
RACHEL MARTIN, HOST:
K-pop is one of South Korea's most successful exports. There are tens of millions of fans worldwide, and now many of those fans are getting political. Haeryun Kang has more from Seoul.
HAERYUN KANG: It's the music that brings the fans together...
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "KILL THIS LOVE")
BLACKPINK: (Singing) Yeah, yeah, yeah.
KANG: ...Blackpink, EXO, GWSN and, of course, the boy band BTS. And when you get 100 million people together on social media, it's really not that surprising that some of them are activists.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER #1: Turns out the Trump campaign might have been trolled by teenagers, TikTok users and Korean pop music fans.
KANG: Fox News credited K-pop fans and others for the poor turnout at President Trump's Tulsa rally. They signed up online for free tickets and never showed up.
VIVIANA DARK: I felt like it was, like, sort of a small thing that I could do, so I kind of felt, like, kind of giddy.
KANG: That's Viviana Dark, a 19-year-old K-pop fan from Wisconsin. She's asked us to use a pseudonym to prevent online harassment. She's no stranger to fighting for racial justice with her K-pop community.
DARK: A lot of it is that I'm Black before I'm a K-pop stan.
KANG: Stan refers to very devoted fans.
Here's how protest tweeting works. For example, fans tweet #whitelivesmatter, couple this with irrelevant K-pop content, like fancams. So when you click on the original hashtag, all you'd see is a sea of K-pop content instead of stuff from white supremacists.
DARK: It wasn't like we had just started this. It was just like it was recognized now.
KANG: Last month, Billboard announced a huge donation from one of K-pop's biggest fandoms.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER #2: And the BTS ARMY matches a million dollars in Black Lives Matter donations.
KANG: K-pop fans are famous for their power to organize. Some fans reportedly flooded the Dallas police's iWatch app with fancams in May to fight for Black Lives Matter. Different fans engage in political protests worldwide, fight for the environment or, more recently, donate to COVID-19 efforts.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "PERFECT MAN")
SHINHWA: (Singing in non-English language).
KANG: Fans of the idol band Shinhwa are credited with one of the earliest examples of K-pop activism in 2007. It's called fan rice, a trend of donating thousands of kilograms of rice to charity.
Not all K-pop fans are politically progressive, and the K-pop industry itself is often accused of racism and simplistic appropriation of Black culture. Fan Viviana Dark says not all K-pop fans are open to criticizing that.
DARK: When we try to have a talk about that or have a talk about, like, serious things like internal racism or, you know, just blatant racism, like, it kind of gets pushed under the bed.
KANG: Lee Jeeheng is a cultural studies scholar and author of "BTS And ARMY Culture." She's a BTS fan herself, also known as ARMYs. She says K-pop fandoms are diverse, passionate, with no clear center, and almost everything happens online.
LEE JEEHENG: (Non-English language spoken).
KANG: She says there are so many different people in the fandoms, loosely connected like grassroots organizations.
LEE: (Non-English language spoken).
KANG: No one can say how they'll continue organizing around Black Lives Matter or even the U.S. election, but if and when they do, it won't be a surprise anymore.
For NPR News, I'm Haeryun Kang in Seoul.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "LOVE SHOT")
EXO: (Singing) Oh, oh, oh, oh. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.